Theory and Experiment

Carlo Ewerz, Johanna Stachel

Note: items with a + sign are discussed from the theoretical **and** from the
experimental viewpoint.

Notation for relativity, transition rates, phase space, two-body decay and scattering, interaction and scattering via particle exchange, Feynman graphs, overview of experimental status of the Standard Model, overview of experiments and colliders

**1) Relativistic Quantum Mechanics**

Klein-Gordon equation, electromagnetic waves, gauge transformations,
Klein paradox, electromagnetic scattering of Klein-Gordon particles,
Dirac equation, spin and magnetic moment of Dirac particles,
covariant notation, free-particle spinors, charge conjugation and parity,
massless Dirac particles, electromagnetic interactions, gamma matrix algebra

**2) Relativistic Quantum Fields**

Classical field theory, Klein-Gordon field, Fourier analysis, second quantization,
single-particle and two-particle states, number operator,
quantization of electromagnetic field,
normal ordering and vacuum energy, Casimir effect(+), complex fields, symmetries
and conservation laws, Noether's theorem, phase (gauge) invariance, Dirac field,
spin-statistics theorem, interacting fields

**3) Gauge Field Theory and the Standard Model**

Gauge symmetry in QED, non-Abelian gauge symmetry, weak interactions,
electroweak interactions, Higgs mechanism, parameters of the Standard Model(+),
QED precision tests and g-2, running of fine structure constant(+),
time-variation of fundamental constants(+),
spontaneous symmetry breaking, properties of the Higgs boson(+),
LEP precision data and tests of the Standard Model, indirect constraints
for the Higgs boson and experimental searches,
quark mixing and the CKM matrix(+),
ultraviolet divergences, renormalizability, dimensions of fields and couplings,
unrenormalizable interactions and effective theories

**4) Quantum Chromodynamics**

Colour and properties of SU(3), SU(3) gauge symmetry, gauge invariant meson
and baryon states(+), colour string, confinement, running of strong coupling constant
and asymptotic freedom(+), nonperturbative QCD, infrared divergences,
deep inelastic scattering(+), structure functions(+), parton branching,
DGLAP evolution equation and solution by moments(+), scaling violations(+),
small-x behaviour of structure functions(+), hadron-hadron scattering(+),
Drell-Yan process(+), jet production(+), jet algorithms(+),
fragmentation and hadronization(+), average multiplicities in quark and gluon jets,
lattice QCD, deconfinement and QCD phase diagram(+)

**5) CP Violation**

Direct and indirect CP violation, strong CP problem, unitarity triangle(+),
mixing in the neutral kaon system(+), direct CP violation in kaon decay(+),
experiments on neutral kaon and B systems

**6) Neutrino Physics**

Neutrino masses, neutrino mixing matrix, Dirac and Majorana mass terms,
neutrino mass matrix, see-saw mechanism, neutrino oscillations(+),
MSW effect(+), atmospheric and solar neutrino experiments, LSND experiment

**7) Physics Beyond the Standard Model**

Open questions in the Standard Model, hierarchy problem, supersymmetry,
solution of hierarchy problem, grand unified theories, SU(5) GUTs,
gauge coupling unification, proton decay, string theory, theories with
large extra dimensions